Dry Needling:

This is essentially a Westernised equivalent of acupuncture, involving the insertion of small needles into the area of tissue healing. The mechanism of action for this therapy is unknown precisely, but it is thought that it stimulates the Aβ sensory nerve fibres (similar but lesser to TENS) whilst causing micro-trauma and inflammation that helps to "reset" an aberrant healing the process. This is especially useful on severely cramped muscle fibres (trigger points), and chronic (long-standing) conditions, that aren't proceeding through the healing process properly.

Possible side-effects include soreness, and minor bruising; dry needling should be painless.